Childbirth, parenting and the subversion of expertise

“Trust yourself, you know more than you think you do.”

This is the first line of Dr. Spock’s revolutionary advice book for parents. It was revolutionary in its time because it counseled a new way of looking at parenthood. Prior to Dr. Spock’s emergence on the scene, the prevailing view of “good” parenting involved following the views of parenting experts. For example, mothers were advised to feed infants according to a schedule, not on demand, and to feed them scientifically superior infant “formula” not breastmilk.

Dr. Spock’s views represent a rejection of radical reliance on experts and suggested that parents had their own, equally valid, sources of knowledge: their personal experiences and their understanding of their own infants. In the intervening decades, Dr. Spock’s advice has been taken to its own radical extreme. Indeed, the entire concept of “expertise” has been deliberately subverted. Now, particularly in natural childbirth and vaccine rejectionist circles, parents are not merely encouraged to substitute their knowledge for that of experts; they are encouraged to believe that they are experts. In other words, rather than supplementing expert advice with parental knowledge, some mothers insist that parental knowledge is expert advice.

Subverting “expertise” in this way serves several important functions. By insisting that they are “experts,” natural childbirth advocates, vaccine rejectionists and others can simultaneously embrace the esteem in which science is viewed and reject the actual scientific evidence. Second, they can use their “expertise” to validate their own parenting choices. Third, they can enhance their own self-esteem by elevating mothering to be an expert, albeit unpaid, occupation.

Charlotte Faircloth argues that this new approach to parental expertise reflects contemporary liberal political philosophy:

In contemporary liberalism the responsible moral actor is not one who conforms blindly to expert or even popular recommendations. Rather, as Murphy notes in The Sociological Review (51[4]), “she is expected to subject such recommendations to evaluation and questioning, operating as an informed consumer.” Those who are not reflexive, informed consumers are deemed irresponsible or in need of education.

If that sounds familiar it’s probably because it is one of the mantras of both natural childbirth and vaccine rejectionists movements. The “best” mother is not the one who accepts expert advice, but the mother who “educates” herself by imbibing the beliefs of those who reject expert advice.

But what is laudatory in the political sphere is not necessary valuable in the scientific sphere. The responsible citizen should subject political information to evaluation and questioning and should vote based on her own beliefs, not the recommendations of politicians. When it comes to determining which political candidate best represents her beliefs, the individual is the expert. That’s not the case with science. Determining the whether vaccines are effective requires consulting the literature, not communing with one’s personal intuitions.

The assault on scientific expertise is hardly a secret in natural childbirth advocacy. Robbie Davis-Floyd has devoted her sociology career to demeaning authorative knowledge and replacing it with “embodied knowledge.” In a chapter in Davis-Floyd’s book Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge, Browner and Press write (Chapter 4):

Recent attention has focused on strategies by the institution of biomedicine to attain medical hegemony in U.S. society… Drawing on Jordan’s concept of authoritative knowledge (AK), this account examines the circumstances under which a group of pregnant women in the U.S. facilitated biomedical expansion by accepting the advice offered by their prenatal care providers. We consider the significance of competing forms of knowledge, particularly” embodied knowledge …”

We define embodied knowledge as subjective knowledge derived from a woman’s perceptions of her body and its natural processes as these change throughout a pregnancy’s course. Jordan’s pioneering work documented how a group of California laywomen used embodied knowledge to accurately diagnose their own pregnant state prior to biomedical confirmation. The women employed a variety of phenomenological indicators as diagnostic criteria including breast enlargement or soreness, nipple tenderness, feelings of extreme “heaviness” or bloating, food cravings, and intolerance to particular foods or smells. Other research found that women in the Colombian city of Cali used these same phenomenological indicators as well as other more idiosyncratic ones such as skin discolorations and pubic itching to diagnose their pregnancies.

Jordan’s conceptualization of AK frames our discussion. She defines AK as rules that carry more weight than others “either because they explain the state of the world better for the purposes at hand (‘efficacy’) or because they are associated with a stronger power base (‘structural superiority’), and usually both.” … In situations of structural inequality, however, one set of rules or form of knowledge often gains authority, devaluing and delegitimating others in doing so…

This account is overtly political, misrepresents medical knowledge, and is downright bizarre. “Embodied knowledge” is nothing more than personal symptoms. Medicine does not deny the validity of symptoms, merely their specificity. A urine HCG pregnancy test represents authoritative knowledge in this setting; embodied knowledge includes “skin discolorations and pubic itching.” There is no doubt that the authoritative knowledge represented by a pregnancy test is far more reliable than any particular symptoms of pregnancy.

If this is their best example, the entire concept of “embodied” knowledge is hardly more than a joke. Physically experiencing symptoms does not constitute “expertise,” does not accurately reflect reality (a woman can experience pregnancy symptoms without being pregnant) and is utterly unreliable. Experiencing pregnancy symptoms does not turn a woman into an expert on pregnancy. If that were the case, we could all be experts on architecture by living in houses.

This subversion of both expertise and knowledge may boost the self esteem of its promoters, but it does nothing to improve the lives of children. Dr. Spock was right; trust yourself, you know more than you think you know. But there’s a caveat: What you know does not represent the sum total of all knowledge on the subject. It’s worth consulting experts and paying attention to expertise. And if you want to be “educated,” you can’t take a short cut by pretending that what you already know is enough. You have to do the hard work of learning science, statistics and the actual subject under discussion, whether it is obstetrics or immunology.

Trackbacks/Pingbacks

  1. download full version pc games - September 25, 2021

    download full version pc games

    […]always a massive fan of linking to bloggers that I like but really don’t get a good deal of link love from[…]

  2. mp3juices - September 24, 2021

    mp3juices

    […]Here is a great Weblog You might Obtain Exciting that we Encourage You[…]

  3. free download for windows 8 - September 24, 2021

    free download for windows 8

  4. free download for windows pc - September 23, 2021

    free download for windows pc

  5. app download for pc - September 23, 2021

    app download for pc

    […]The facts talked about in the post are a number of the top out there […]

  6. projektant wnętrz Gdynia - September 23, 2021

    projektant wnętrz Gdynia

    […]usually posts some quite fascinating stuff like this. If you are new to this site[…]

  7. بديل تروكولر - September 22, 2021

    بديل تروكولر

    […]just beneath, are a lot of totally not associated sites to ours, even so, they are surely really worth going over[…]

  8. clit stimulator - September 22, 2021

    clit stimulator

    […]Here is a superb Blog You might Find Interesting that we Encourage You[…]

  9. giving blowjob - September 22, 2021

    giving blowjob

  10. NAPHYRONE FOR SALE - September 20, 2021

    NAPHYRONE FOR SALE

    […]always a huge fan of linking to bloggers that I like but really don’t get lots of link appreciate from[…]

  11. Chihuahua Puppies For Sale near me - September 20, 2021

    Chihuahua Puppies For Sale near me

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  12. Macaw parrots for sale - September 20, 2021

    Macaw parrots for sale

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  13. Thc juul pods - September 17, 2021

    Thc juul pods

    […]The data talked about inside the post are several of the top offered […]

  14. murchison falls national park - September 16, 2021

    murchison falls national park

    […]just beneath, are several totally not related web-sites to ours, having said that, they may be surely worth going over[…]

  15. 피망머니상 - September 11, 2021

    피망머니상

  16. 메이저놀이터 - September 10, 2021

    메이저놀이터

    […]very few websites that happen to become in depth below, from our point of view are undoubtedly well really worth checking out[…]

  17. ssm academy - September 9, 2021

    ssm academy

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a handful of unrelated data, nevertheless actually worth taking a look, whoa did 1 discover about Mid East has got more problerms also […]

  18. best in ottawa - September 9, 2021

    best in ottawa

    […]here are some hyperlinks to internet sites that we link to due to the fact we consider they are worth visiting[…]

  19. realistic stroker - September 8, 2021

    realistic stroker

    […]very few web sites that take place to be detailed below, from our point of view are undoubtedly nicely really worth checking out[…]

  20. how to use cock ring - September 7, 2021

    how to use cock ring

    […]the time to read or take a look at the material or sites we have linked to beneath the[…]

  21. pussy masturbation - September 7, 2021

    pussy masturbation

    […]we came across a cool web site that you could appreciate. Take a look for those who want[…]

  22. realistic masturbators - September 6, 2021

    realistic masturbators

    […]always a big fan of linking to bloggers that I appreciate but do not get a whole lot of link really like from[…]

  23. download a twitter video - September 4, 2021

    download a twitter video

    […]Here are several of the sites we advise for our visitors[…]

  24. melhores telemóveis - September 4, 2021

    melhores telemóveis

  25. Trusted dex ctrlcoin.io - September 4, 2021

    Trusted dex ctrlcoin.io

    […]we came across a cool web site that you simply might love. Take a look when you want[…]

  26. streaming gratuit - September 3, 2021

    streaming gratuit

    […]below you will obtain the link to some sites that we feel it is best to visit[…]

  27. site de streaming - September 3, 2021

    site de streaming

    […]Here are some of the web-sites we advise for our visitors[…]

  28. vehicle movements - September 2, 2021

    vehicle movements

    […]very handful of internet websites that occur to be comprehensive below, from our point of view are undoubtedly nicely worth checking out[…]

  29. streamcomplet - September 2, 2021

    streamcomplet

    […]Here are several of the web sites we advocate for our visitors[…]

  30. Decentralized P2P Network For Secured Loans - September 1, 2021

    Decentralized P2P Network For Secured Loans

    […]The information talked about in the post are some of the very best out there […]

  31. ogrenci escort - September 1, 2021

    ogrenci escort

    […]Here are a number of the internet sites we advise for our visitors[…]

  32. THC Vape Oil - August 31, 2021

    THC Vape Oil

    […]Here is a superb Weblog You might Locate Fascinating that we Encourage You[…]

  33. real skin dildo - August 30, 2021

    real skin dildo

  34. realistic dildo reviews - August 30, 2021

    realistic dildo reviews

    […]although websites we backlink to below are considerably not connected to ours, we feel they are essentially really worth a go by means of, so possess a look[…]

  35. best male masturbator - August 29, 2021

    best male masturbator

    […]we came across a cool site that you simply might delight in. Take a appear in the event you want[…]

  36. prostate stimulation - August 29, 2021

    prostate stimulation

    […]check beneath, are some absolutely unrelated web-sites to ours, however, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  37. ground lease - August 26, 2021

    ground lease

    […]Here are some of the sites we advocate for our visitors[…]

  38. hosting deals - August 25, 2021

    hosting deals

    […]very couple of websites that come about to become in depth below, from our point of view are undoubtedly well worth checking out[…]

  39. lottovip สมัคร - August 24, 2021

    lottovip สมัคร

    […]although web sites we backlink to below are considerably not connected to ours, we really feel they’re essentially worth a go by way of, so have a look[…]

  40. Masturbator - August 24, 2021

    Masturbator

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  41. portable oxygen concentrator dubai - August 23, 2021

    portable oxygen concentrator dubai

  42. vibrators for women - August 23, 2021

    vibrators for women

    […]Sites of interest we have a link to[…]

  43. panty vibe - August 23, 2021

    panty vibe

    […]please take a look at the sites we follow, such as this one particular, because it represents our picks through the web[…]

  44. best prostate vibrator - August 23, 2021

    best prostate vibrator

    […]check beneath, are some entirely unrelated internet websites to ours, nevertheless, they may be most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  45. fun88 - August 22, 2021

    fun88

    […]The information talked about inside the post are several of the most beneficial offered […]

  46. Restaurants - August 21, 2021

    Restaurants

    […]we came across a cool web page that you simply could possibly enjoy. Take a appear for those who want[…]

  47. mersin escort - August 16, 2021

    mersin escort

  48. prostate vibrating massager - August 15, 2021

    prostate vibrating massager

    […]please visit the sites we comply with, including this one particular, because it represents our picks from the web[…]

  49. canadianpharmacyking.com - August 14, 2021

    canadianpharmacyking.com

    […]very couple of internet sites that happen to become detailed below, from our point of view are undoubtedly very well really worth checking out[…]

  50. kegel balls for women - August 14, 2021

    kegel balls for women

    […]The info mentioned within the write-up are a number of the most effective readily available […]

  51. Magic Mushroom Edibles - August 14, 2021

    Magic Mushroom Edibles

    […]below you will obtain the link to some internet sites that we assume you need to visit[…]

  52. happyluke ฟรี300 - August 13, 2021

    happyluke ฟรี300

    […]just beneath, are many absolutely not associated websites to ours, even so, they may be certainly really worth going over[…]

  53. uskudar escort - August 13, 2021

    uskudar escort

    […]Here is a great Blog You may Locate Fascinating that we Encourage You[…]

  54. kurtkoy escort - August 13, 2021

    kurtkoy escort

    […]always a big fan of linking to bloggers that I adore but really don’t get lots of link adore from[…]

  55. cleaning male sex toys - August 12, 2021

    cleaning male sex toys

    […]below you will locate the link to some internet sites that we assume it is best to visit[…]

  56. personal wand massager - August 12, 2021

    personal wand massager

    […]the time to read or take a look at the content material or sites we have linked to beneath the[…]

  57. happyluke - August 11, 2021

    happyluke

  58. Peruvian Cocaine For Sale - August 10, 2021

    Peruvian Cocaine For Sale

    […]Here is an excellent Weblog You might Discover Fascinating that we Encourage You[…]

  59. latest news - August 10, 2021

    latest news

    […]here are some links to websites that we link to since we believe they’re really worth visiting[…]

  60. bahcelievler escort - August 9, 2021

    bahcelievler escort

  61. porn audio - August 5, 2021

    porn audio

    […]here are some hyperlinks to web-sites that we link to due to the fact we believe they are worth visiting[…]

  62. penis pumps - August 4, 2021

    penis pumps

    […]although internet sites we backlink to below are considerably not connected to ours, we really feel they’re really really worth a go via, so have a look[…]

  63. how to use a waterproof penis extender - August 4, 2021

    how to use a waterproof penis extender

    […]check below, are some totally unrelated web sites to ours, having said that, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  64. best butterfly vibrator - August 4, 2021

    best butterfly vibrator

    […]just beneath, are numerous absolutely not connected sites to ours, on the other hand, they’re surely really worth going over[…]

  65. realistic male masturbator - August 4, 2021

    realistic male masturbator

    […]the time to study or check out the content material or internet sites we’ve linked to below the[…]

  66. about - July 31, 2021

    about

    […]we came across a cool website which you could possibly delight in. Take a look for those who want[…]

  67. datenrettung pc - July 31, 2021

    datenrettung pc

  68. jaguar cub for sale - July 29, 2021

    jaguar cub for sale

    […]very handful of web-sites that happen to be comprehensive below, from our point of view are undoubtedly effectively worth checking out[…]

  69. ptsd - July 28, 2021

    ptsd

    […]the time to study or take a look at the material or web-sites we’ve linked to below the[…]

  70. canada pharmacy canada pharmacy canada pharmacy - July 27, 2021

    canada pharmacy canada pharmacy canada pharmacy

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a few unrelated information, nonetheless genuinely really worth taking a search, whoa did one particular learn about Mid East has got additional problerms also […]

  71. Ruger Guns For Sale Online - July 27, 2021

    Ruger Guns For Sale Online

    […]one of our visitors recently suggested the following website[…]

  72. real glo carts - July 26, 2021

    real glo carts

    […]the time to study or go to the content material or web-sites we’ve linked to beneath the[…]

  73. kush online - July 26, 2021

    kush online

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  74. where can i buy edibles - July 26, 2021

    where can i buy edibles

    […]The info talked about within the article are a number of the ideal obtainable […]

  75. معرفة هوية المتصل - July 26, 2021

    معرفة هوية المتصل

    […]just beneath, are various entirely not related internet sites to ours, on the other hand, they’re certainly really worth going over[…]

  76. Discreet gun shop - July 26, 2021

    Discreet gun shop

    […]Here are several of the web-sites we recommend for our visitors[…]

  77. where to buy mango juul pods 2021 - July 25, 2021

    where to buy mango juul pods 2021

    […]Every after in a when we choose blogs that we study. Listed below would be the most recent web pages that we pick out […]

  78. HBCUO - July 25, 2021

    HBCUO

    […]very handful of web-sites that occur to be in depth below, from our point of view are undoubtedly well worth checking out[…]

  79. best software list - July 25, 2021

    best software list

    […]very handful of sites that occur to be comprehensive below, from our point of view are undoubtedly nicely worth checking out[…]

  80. visit website - July 24, 2021

    visit website

  81. mp3juice - July 24, 2021

    mp3juice

  82. adult toys - July 23, 2021

    adult toys

    […]the time to study or check out the content or websites we’ve linked to beneath the[…]

  83. best boat tours - July 23, 2021

    … [Trackback]

    […] Find More here to that Topic: skepticalob.com/2010/09/childbirth-parenting-and-subversion-of.html […]

  84. painted sheds - July 21, 2021

    painted sheds

    […]one of our guests recently suggested the following website[…]

  85. how to lose belly fat fast - July 18, 2021

    how to lose belly fat fast

  86. alligator meat for sale - July 16, 2021

    alligator meat for sale

    […]very couple of sites that transpire to become detailed beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly well worth checking out[…]

  87. nautilus counter - July 16, 2021

    nautilus counter

    […]check below, are some totally unrelated internet websites to ours, even so, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  88. Buy Vape Carts Online - July 14, 2021

    Buy Vape Carts Online

    https://theclearconcerntrate.com/ The Clear classic oil is mixed with CBD isolate and our preparatory flavorings for the best taste and consistency on the market today.

  89. Canadian Marble Fox - July 14, 2021

    Canadian Marble Fox

  90. s racer chair - July 14, 2021

    s racer chair

    […]check below, are some totally unrelated websites to ours, nevertheless, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  91. Sig Mpx - July 14, 2021

    Sig Mpx

    […]we came across a cool internet site which you may well take pleasure in. Take a appear in the event you want[…]

  92. Canada Pharmacy - July 13, 2021

    Canada Pharmacy

  93. Parksville Roofing Company - July 13, 2021

    Parksville Roofing Company

    […]usually posts some incredibly intriguing stuff like this. If you are new to this site[…]

  94. istanbul escort - July 13, 2021

    istanbul escort

    […]Here is a superb Blog You may Uncover Exciting that we Encourage You[…]

  95. istanbul eskort bayan - July 13, 2021

    istanbul eskort bayan

    […]Here are a number of the sites we recommend for our visitors[…]

  96. MILF Porn - July 12, 2021

    MILF Porn

    […]usually posts some quite fascinating stuff like this. If you are new to this site[…]

  97. MURANG'A UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY - July 9, 2021

    MURANG’A UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

    […]Here are a number of the internet sites we recommend for our visitors[…]

  98. Surat utang obligasi - July 8, 2021

    Surat utang obligasi

    […]very handful of web sites that transpire to be in depth beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly properly really worth checking out[…]

  99. Glock Guns for sale - July 8, 2021

    Glock Guns for sale

    […]Here is an excellent Weblog You may Find Fascinating that we Encourage You[…]

  100. Kelowna movers - July 7, 2021

    Kelowna movers

    […]very few web sites that happen to become comprehensive below, from our point of view are undoubtedly nicely worth checking out[…]

  101. Ruger Revolvers - July 6, 2021

    Ruger Revolvers

    […]Sites of interest we’ve a link to[…]

  102. glo carts - July 6, 2021

    glo carts

    […]below you will locate the link to some web pages that we believe you ought to visit[…]

  103. how to buy guns online - July 6, 2021

    how to buy guns online

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a few unrelated data, nevertheless actually worth taking a look, whoa did 1 find out about Mid East has got additional problerms at the same time […]

  104. Ruger Handguns - July 6, 2021

    Ruger Handguns

    […]just beneath, are quite a few totally not related web sites to ours, on the other hand, they may be surely worth going over[…]

  105. how much do shrooms cost - July 6, 2021

    how much do shrooms cost

    […]Here are a number of the websites we advocate for our visitors[…]

  106. buy tiktok followers - July 5, 2021

    buy tiktok followers

    […]The data mentioned inside the post are several of the most effective out there […]

  107. buy weed online - July 5, 2021

    buy weed online

    […]usually posts some pretty exciting stuff like this. If you are new to this site[…]

  108. weed near me - July 5, 2021

    weed near me

  109. dispensary near me - July 5, 2021

    dispensary near me

    […]check beneath, are some absolutely unrelated web sites to ours, even so, they may be most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  110. Seattle Weekly - July 5, 2021

    Seattle Weekly

    […]very handful of web sites that come about to become comprehensive beneath, from our point of view are undoubtedly very well really worth checking out[…]

  111. buy weed online - July 5, 2021

    buy weed online

    […]please go to the sites we adhere to, including this one particular, as it represents our picks in the web[…]

  112. BUY SHARKLATO RUNTZ ONLINE - July 4, 2021

    BUY SHARKLATO RUNTZ ONLINE

    […]check below, are some completely unrelated websites to ours, however, they may be most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  113. silicone bullet vibrator - July 3, 2021

    silicone bullet vibrator

    […]Here is a good Weblog You may Find Intriguing that we Encourage You[…]

  114. bachelor's degree - July 1, 2021

    bachelor’s degree

    […]very couple of internet sites that transpire to be in depth below, from our point of view are undoubtedly well really worth checking out[…]

  115. buy legal weed - June 30, 2021

    buy legal weed

    […]we came across a cool site that you may well enjoy. Take a appear when you want[…]

  116. best cbd gummies for sleep - June 29, 2021

    best cbd gummies for sleep

    […]The facts mentioned in the article are some of the most beneficial obtainable […]

  117. where to buy delta 8 - June 29, 2021

    where to buy delta 8

    […]Here is a great Blog You may Uncover Exciting that we Encourage You[…]

  118. THC Gummies - June 29, 2021

    THC Gummies

    […]Every after in a though we decide on blogs that we read. Listed below would be the most recent websites that we choose […]

  119. strap on vibrator - June 27, 2021

    strap on vibrator

    […]very handful of web-sites that take place to be comprehensive below, from our point of view are undoubtedly very well really worth checking out[…]

  120. Food License Mumbai - June 26, 2021

    Food License Mumbai

  121. tides today at tides.today - June 24, 2021

    tides today at tides.today

    […]the time to read or visit the content material or web pages we have linked to beneath the[…]

  122. most realistic dildo - June 22, 2021

    most realistic dildo

    […]check beneath, are some totally unrelated web sites to ours, nonetheless, they may be most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  123. cell phone screen repair - June 22, 2021

    cell phone screen repair

  124. best delta 8 thc gummies - June 22, 2021

    best delta 8 thc gummies

    […]check beneath, are some totally unrelated internet websites to ours, having said that, they may be most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  125. best delta 8 THC vape cartridges - June 22, 2021

    best delta 8 THC vape cartridges

    […]check below, are some absolutely unrelated internet websites to ours, however, they are most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  126. buy Instagram likes - June 21, 2021

    buy Instagram likes

    […]very couple of web-sites that take place to become comprehensive below, from our point of view are undoubtedly very well really worth checking out[…]

  127. best delta 8 - June 21, 2021

    best delta 8

  128. kratom for sale - June 21, 2021

    kratom for sale

    […]please take a look at the web pages we stick to, such as this one, as it represents our picks from the web[…]

  129. buy real Instagram likes - June 21, 2021

    buy real Instagram likes

  130. best kratom capsules - June 21, 2021

    best kratom capsules

    […]check beneath, are some entirely unrelated internet websites to ours, on the other hand, they may be most trustworthy sources that we use[…]

  131. buy kratom online - June 21, 2021

    buy kratom online

    […]here are some links to web sites that we link to mainly because we think they’re worth visiting[…]

  132. Google - June 16, 2021

    Google

    Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a few unrelated information, nevertheless genuinely really worth taking a look, whoa did one particular study about Mid East has got far more problerms also.

  133. Google - June 14, 2021

    Google

    Here are some hyperlinks to internet sites that we link to because we believe they’re worth visiting.

  134. gaming community - February 16, 2013

    Title…

    […]check below, are some entirely unrelated websites to ours, nonetheless, they’re most trustworthy sources that we use[…]…

  135. http://www.routingcheck.com/wells-fargo-bank-routing-number.html - February 15, 2013

    Title…

    […]Here is a superb Blog You might Discover Exciting that we Encourage You[…]…

  136. http://thaddeus.gburgforum.com/news/57000-raised-in-gettysburg-college-s-first-relay-for-life/ - February 15, 2013

    Title…

    […]we came across a cool website that you simply may enjoy. Take a search when you want[…]…

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.